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Disability Conditions we treat

Home Intellectual Disability

INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY 

WHAT IS INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY?

Intellectual Disability, formerly known as “Mental Retardation,” is a disorder with onset during the developmental period and before 18 years of age. It includes intellectual deficits and difficulty functioning in daily life in areas such as communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, self-direction, academics, work, leisure, health, and safety. Someone with intellectual disability has limitations in two areas of intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviours.There are several degrees of intellectual disability which ranges from mild, moderate to severe and profound.

Intellectual functioning, also called intelligence, refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, problem solving, and so on.IQ (intelligence quotient) is measured by an IQ test. The average IQ is 100. A person is considered intellectually disabled if he or she has an IQ of less than 70 to 75.

Adaptive behaviours are skills necessary for day-to-day life, such as being able to communicate effectively, interact with others, and take care of oneself.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?

Every person is unique, with their own personality and areas of ability and areas of difficulty.Signs of intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.

  • Lack of or slow development of motor skills, language skills, and self-help skills, especially when compared to peers
  • Failure to grow intellectually or continued infant-like behaviour
  • Lack of curiosity
  • Problems keeping up in school
  • Failure to adapt (adjust to new situations)
  • Difficulty understanding and following social rules

WHY IS INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY CAUSED?

Intellectual disability affects about 1% to 3% of the population. Causes of intellectual disability can include:

  • Chromosomal abnormalities like Down Syndrome
  • Problems during pregnancy like malnutrition and infections
  • Exposure to toxic drugs like alcohol cocaine during pregnancy
  • Insufficient oxygen supply to brain.
  • Injury or trauma to brain

WHO IS AT THE RISK?

The risk of intellectual disability is higher when:

  • Babies are born before their expected birth date (extreme prematurity)
  • There are serious health problems during childhood
  • The mother takes drugs including alcohol during pregnancy
  • There is strong family history of intellectual disability in other family membets

HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED?

Three things factor into the diagnosis of intellectual disability: 

  • Interviews with the parents
  • Observation of the child and developmental screening tests
  • Testing of intelligence and adaptive behaviours

HOW IS IT MANAGED?

Goal of treatment is to develop the person's potential to the fullest. 

A child with ID is best cared for by a multidisciplinary team consisting of the primary care doctor, social workers, speech therapists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, neurologists or developmental paediatricians, psychologists, nutritionists, educators; and others.

WHEN TO SEE A DOCTOR?

. If you fear that your child may be facing a problem and you observe developmental, communication problems and issues with self-care please visit a health professional.

WHERE CAN THEY BE TAKEN CARE OF?

At HCRA, The full array of a child's strengths and weaknesses are examined for determining what kind of support is needed. Factors such as physical disabilities, personality problems, mental illness, and interpersonal skills are all taken into consideration while planning a comprehensive management plan for the condition. Therefore, special educators, speech therapists, psychologist, occupational therapists are all involved in the management and treatment plan. 

 





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