Obstacle to getting into and staying in school include the following:-
Being Poor:- This is not just a question of costs , which we will deal with next. Apart from the cost factor, poor people do not have the same access to services as wealthy people. The poor do not know how to go about it. They have no influence. They are infinitely patient and long-suffering and seen to treat rejection as part of their lot. They are so used to being refused that they put up little resistance when their child is not accepted in community.
Direct costs:- no matter how free school may be ,there will almost inevitably be some costs –fees, levies, materials to be bought, uniforms. Writing materials regular educational accessories, transport, meals etc.
Opportunity costs:- a child who is in school is not free to participate in income generating activities for the household . When the child is at school. Somebody else has to take care of what the child might otherwise have done. This could be petty trading. It could be looking after young children, so that the mother is freed to do other things. It could be looking after a sick person. It could be running messages. It could be herding cattle or fishing. The work of a child around a household is of great economic value to a family socio-economically under developed, and many families cannot do without this contribution.
Sickness: - This stops children from attending school, whether it is the child that is sick or somebody in the family who needs the child to give care and attention. Without HIV/Aids, Sickness has become a major obstacle to the school attendance of many children.
Being a girl :- There are many influences at work here . Many parents do not see the value of educating girls. They think that a girl’s role is to be a wife and mother, and that being educated might even spoil her for this. Others, especially in rural areas , would like to see their daughter getting married early , in order to escape from the most of her child-bearing years. Still other parents fear for their girls safety in school ; they know that girls are harassed by men and boys, that they maybe in particular danger from fellow-pupils, from teachers.
Being an orphan:- there is strong evidence from all over the country that when a child becomes an orphan it is likely to drop out of school or not even start. The family that takes in the child is already paying for its own children and cannot afford to pay for any more. Girls , in most of the cases are indulged to various child labour activities.